Orac

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF VEGETABLES, HERBS AND FRUITS BASED ON IN VITRO ASSAYS. 
Compiled by Dr. B. Rathinasabapathi, Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0690 E-mail
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Table 1

Total Antioxidant Capacity of Tea and Common Vegetablesa

 

 

 

ORACROO.b

ORACOH.b

ORACCuc

Antioxidant

Item

WM basis

WM basis

WM basis

scored

green tea

 

 

 

 

black tea

 

 

 

 

Kale

17.7

6.2

0.2

24.1

Garlic

19.4

1.1

2.7

23.2

Spinach

12.6

2.8

1.6

17

Brussels sprouts

9.8

5.4

0.6

15.8

alfalfa sprouts

9.3

4.6

0.6

14.5

broccoli flowers

8.9

2.4

1.6

12.9

Beets

8.4

3.1

0.2

11.7

red bell pepper

7.1

0.6

0.4

8.1

Corn

4

2.2

1

7.2

Onion

4.5

0.5

0.6

5.6

Eggplant

3.9

1.1

0.1

5.1

cauliflower

3.8

1.1

0.2

5.1

Cabbage

3

1.5

0.3

4.8

Potato

3.1

1

0.5

4.6

sweet potato

3

1

0.3

4.3

leaf lettuce

2.6

1.4

0.1

4.1

string bean

2

1.7

0.2

3.9

Carrot

2.1

0.8

0.5

3.4

yellow squash

1.5

1.1

0.2

2.8

iceberg lettuce

1.2

0.7

0.4

2.3

celery

0.6

0.3

0.2

1.1

cucumber

0.5

0.3

0.3

1.1

a Data expressed as means of three samples purchased and analyzed
independently, except for the black tea. b Data expressed as µmol of
Trolox equiv/g of wet matter (WM) or dry matter (DM).  C Data expressed
as x103 units/g of wet matter (WM) or dry matter (DM).
d Antioxidant score = ORACROO. + ORACOH. + ORACCu (WM basis). 

Source:
Cao, G.; Sofic, E.; Prior, R.L.; Antioxidant Capacity of Tea and
Common Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1996, 44, 3426-3431

 

Table 2.

Total PhenolAntioxidant Index (PAOXI) of Vegetables

 

totala PAOXI x 10-3

vegetable

dry wt

rank

asparagus

144

1

onion (yellow)

115

2

garlic

83.7

3

onion (red)

101

3

bean (snap)

65.9

4

bean (kidney)

61.8

5

bean (pinto)

49.4

6

tomato

48.5

7

broccoli

46.1

8

pepper (bell)

42.9

9

beet

34.6

10

squash (green)

32.2

11

spinach

32.1

12

mushroom

30

13

lettuce (head)

28.2

14

cauliflower

26.4

15

potato

23.6

16

carrot

22.1

17

celery

18.6

18

sweet potato

18.3

19

cucumber

16.8

20

cabbage

16.6

21

corn

10.8

22

a Total phenols analyzed in the
hydrolyzed extract.

Source: 
Vinson, J.A.; Hao, Y.; Su, X.; Zubik, L. Phenol Antioxidant
Quantity and Quality in Foods: Vegetables.  J. Agric. Food
Chem., 1998, 46, 3630-3634

 

Table 3.

Antioxidative Activity of Various Edible Plant Extracts Determined with Present Method

plant

IC50a (ppm)

green tea

0.25

oolong tea

0.33

black tea

0.38

BHA

0.65

ginger root

4.38

chrysanthemum peel

18.03

Roselle

18.80

Basil

40.25

red pepper

60.75

orange peel

68.75

tangerine peel

72.00

garlic

79.50

oat

95.00

peanut hull

111.25

lemon peel

122.00

carrot

168.00

burdock

343.75

a IC50, inhibitory concentration caused 50% inhibition of the
peroxidation of linoleic acid.

Source:
Kuo, J.;Yeh, D.; Pan, B.; Rapid Photometric Assay
Evaluating Antioxidative Activity in Edible
Plant Material. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999, 47, 3206-3209

 

Table 4.
ORAC and FRAP Values of Vegetables (umol TE/g) (n>4)

 

FRAP

 

ORAC

 

 

species

mean

SD

mean

SD

 

green pepper

157

58

154

60

 

spinach

64

13

152

26

 

purple onion

31

11

143

46

 

broccoli

41

11

126

42

 

beet

86

29

115

36

 

cauliflower

61

12

102

28

 

red pepper

185

49

97

43

 

white onion

17

4

85

23

 

snap bean

20

13

79

37

 

tomato

56

8

67

13

 

white cabbage

39

17

61

21

 

carrot

31

7

60

15

 

pea

6

1

19

3

 

 

Source:
Ou, B.; Huang, D.; Hampsch-Woodill, M.; Flanagan, J.A.; Deemer, E.  Analysis of Antioxidant Activities of Common Vegetables Employing Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) Assays: A Comparative Study.  J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, 50, 3122-3128

 

Table 5.

Relative total antioxidant activities and dietary sources of flavonoids and antioxidant vitamins

 

 

 

Antioxidant

Sources

Antioxidant activitya (mM)

 

 

 

Vitamins

 

 

Vitamin C

fruit and vegetables

1.0 ± 0.02

Vitamin E

grains, nuts and oils

1.0 ± 0.03

Flavonoids

 

 

Anthocyanidns

 

 

Oenin

black grapes/red wine

1.8 ± 0.02

Cyanidin

grapes, raspberries and strawberries

4.4 ± 0.12

Delphinidin

aubergine (eggplant) skin

4.4 ± 0.11

Flavon-3-ols

 

 

Quercitin

onion, apple skin, berries, black grapes, tea and broccoli

4.7 ± 0.10

Kaempferol

endive, leek, broccoli, grapefruit and tea

1.3 ± 0.08

Flavones

 

 

Rutin

onion, apple skin, berries, black grapes, tea and broccoli

2.4 ± 0.12

Luteolin

lemon, olive, celery and red pepper

2.1 ± 0.05

Chrysin

fruit skin

1.4 ± 0.07

Apigenin

celery and parsley

1.5 ± 0.08

Flavan-3-ols

 

 

(Epi)catechin

black grapes/red wine

2.4 ± 0.02

Epigallocatechin

teas

3.8 ± 0.06

Epigallocatechin gallate

teas

4.8 ± 0.06

Epicatechin gallate

teas

4.9 ± 0.02

Flavanones

 

 

Taxifolin

citrus fruit

1.9 ± 0.03

Narirutin

citrus fruit

0.8 ± 0.5

(naringenin-7-rutinoside)

 

 

Naringenin

citrus fruit

1.5 ± 0.05

Hesperidin

orange juice

1.0 ± 0.03

(hesperidin-7-rutinoside)

 

 

Hesperidin

orange juice

1.4 ± 0.08

Theaflavins

 

 

Theaflavin

black tea

2.9 ± 0.08

Theaflavin-3-gallate

black tea

4.7 ± 0.16

Theaflavin-3'-gallate

black tea

4.8 ± 0.19

Theaflavin digallate

black tea

6.2 ± 0.43

Hydroxycinnamates

 

 

Caffeic acid

white grapes, olives, cabbage and asparagus

1.3 ± 0.01

Chlorogenic acid

apple, pear, cherry, tomato and peach

1.3 ± 0.02

Ferulic acid

grains, tomato, cabbage and asparagus

1.9 ± 0.02

p-Coumaric acid

white grapes, tomato, cabbage and asparagus

2.2 ± 0.06

a Measured as the TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity)- the concentration of Trolox with the equivalent antioxidant activity of a 1 mM concentration of the experimental substance.

Source:
Rice-Evans, C.A.; Miller, N.J.; and Paganga, G.  Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends in Plant Science. 1997, vol.2, no.4, 152-157

 

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